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References and recommended readings


Eccles H., Hunt S.,
Immobilisation of Ions by Bio-Sorption, Ellis Horwood Limited, 1986.

Volesky B.,
Biosorption of Heavy Metals, CRC Press, 1990.

Wase John and Christopher Forster,

Biosorbents for Metal Ions, Taylor and Francis, Ltd, 1997.


  1. S V Avery and J M Tobin, Mechanism of adsorption of hard and soft metal ions to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and influence of hard and soft anions, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 2851-2856, (1993).

Chandra Sekhar K., S. Subramanian, J. M. Modak and K. A. Natarajan
Removal of metal ions using an industrial biomass with reference to environmental control,
International Journal of Mineral Processing, Volume 53, Issues 1-2, February 1998, 107-120

Davis Thomas A., Bohumil Volesky and Alfonso Mucci
A review of the biochemistry of heavy metal biosorption by brown algae,
Water Research, Volume 37, Issue 18, November 2003, 4311-4330

Diels L., Tsezos M., Pümpel T., Pernfuss B., Schinner F., Hummel A., Echard L. & Glombitza F.
Pseudomonas mendocina AS302 a bacterium with a non selective and very high metal biosorption capacity
Biohydrometallurgical Processing
C.A. Cerez, T. Vargas, H. Toledo & J.V. Wiertz (eds.), University of Chile, pp.195-200, 1995

Diels L., Corbisier P., Hooyberghs L., Glombitza F., Hummel A., Tsezos M., Pümpel T., Pernfuss B., Schinner F. & Mergeay M.
Heavy metal resistance and biosorption in Alcaligenes Eutrophus ER 121
Biohydrometallurgical Processing
C.A. Cerez, T. Vargas, H. Toledo & J.V. Wiertz (eds.), University of Chile, pp.287-297, 1995

Diniz Vivian and Bohumil Volesky
Biosorption of La, Eu and Yb using Sargassum biomass ,
Water Research, Volume 39, Issue 1, January 2005, 239-247

Eccles Harry
Treatment of metal-contaminated wastes: why select a biological process?
Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 17, Issue 12, 1 December 1999, 462-465

Esposito A. , F. Pagnanelli and F. Vegliň
pH-related equilibria models for biosorption in single metal systems,
Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 57, Issue 3, February 2002, 307-313

Figueira M. M. , B. Volesky, V. S. T. Ciminelli and Felicity A. Roddick
Biosorption of metals in brown seaweed biomass,
Water Research, Volume 34, Issue 1, 1 January 2000, 196-204

Flemming Hans-Curt
Sorption sites in biofilms,
Water Science and Technology, Volume 32, Issue 8, 1995, 27-33

Fourest Eric, Catherine Canal and Jean-Claude Roux
Improvement of heavy metal biosorption by mycelial dead biomasses (Rhizopus arrhizus, Mucor miehei and Penicillium chrysogenum): pH control and cationic activation,
FEMS Microbiology Reviews, Volume 14, Issue 4, August 1994, 325-332

Gadd M.G.,
Microbial Influence on Metal Mobility and Application for Bioremediation, Geoderma, 109-119, 122, 2004.

Guibal E., C. Roulph and P. Le Cloirec
Uranium biosorption by a filamentous fungus Mucor miehei pH effect on mechanisms and performances of uptake
Water Research, Volume 26, Issue 8, August 1992, 1139-1145

Jianlong Wang
Biosorption of copper(II) by chemically modified biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
Process Biochemistry, Volume 37, Issue 8, March 2002, 847-850

Kapoor Anoopand T. Viraraghavan
Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger ,
Bioresource Technology, Volume 61, Issue 3, September 1997, 221-227

Kapoor A. and T. Viraraghavan
Fungal biosorption - an alternative treatment option for heavy metal bearing wastewaters: a review,
Bioresource Technology, Volume 53, Issue 3, 1995, 195-206

Katarzyna Chojnacka, Andrzej Chojnacki and Helena Górecka
Biosorption of Cr3+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions by blue-green algae Spirulina sp.: kinetics, equilibrium and the mechanism of the process,
Chemosphere, Volume 59, Issue 1, March 2005, 75-84

Kratochvil David and Bohumil Volesky
Advances in the biosorption of heavy metals,
Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 7, 1 July 1998, 291-300

Ledin M., Pedersen K.
The environmental impact of mine wastes - Roles of microorganisms and their significance in treatment of mine wastes.
Earth - Science Reviews 41, 1996, 67-108.

Li Peng-Fu, Zhi-Yong Mao, Xiang-Jun Rao, Xiao-Mei Wang, Mao-Zhong Min, Li-Wen Qiu and Zhi-Li Liu
Biosorption of uranium by lake-harvested biomass from a cyanobacterium bloom,
Bioresource Technology, Volume 94, Issue 2, September 2004, 193-195

Lin Zhongyu, Chaohui Zhou, Jianming Wu, Jianzhang Zhou and Lin Wang
A further insight into the mechanism of Ag+
biosorption by Lactobacillus sp. strain A09,
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, Volume 61, Issue 6, April 2005, 1195-1200

Liu Yu, Hui Xu, Shu-Fang Yang and Joo-Hwa Tay
A general model for biosorption of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ by aerobic granules,
Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 102, Issue 3, 8 May 2003, 233-239

Naja Ghinwa, Christian Mustin, Jacques Berthelin and Bohumil Volesky
Lead biosorption study with Rhizopus arrhizus using a metal-based titration technique ,Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 292, Issue 2, 15 December 2005, 537-543

Pagnanelli F., F. Beolchini, A. Esposito, L. Toro and F. Vegliň
Mechanistic modeling of heavy metal biosorption in batch and membrane reactor systems,
Hydrometallurgy, Volume 71, Issues 1-2, October 2003, 201-208

Pagnanelli Fransesca, Antonio Esposito and Francesco Vegliň
Multi-metallic modelling for biosorption of binary systems,
Water Research, Volume 36, Issue 16, September 2002, 4095-4105

Park Donghee, Yeoung-Sang Yun and Jong Moon Park
Studies on hexavalent chromium biosorption by chemically-treated biomass of Ecklonia sp. ,
Chemosphere, Volume 60, Issue 10, September 2005, 1356-1364

Park Donghee, Yeoung-Sang Yun and Jong Moon Park
Use of dead fungal biomass for the detoxification of hexavalent chromium: screening and kinetics ,
Process Biochemistry, Volume 40, Issue 7, June 2005, 2559-2565

Park Donghee, Yeoung-Sang Yun, Ji Hye Jo and Jong Moon Park
Mechanism of hexavalent chromium removal by dead fungal biomass of Aspergillus niger ,
Water Research, Volume 39, Issue 4, February 2005, 533-540

Pérez-Corona Teresa, Yolanda Madrid and Carmen Cámara
Evaluation of selective uptake of selenium (Se(IV) and Se(VI)) and antimony (Sb(III) and Sb(V)) species by baker's yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae),
Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 345, Issues 1-3, 20 June 1997, 249-255

Pethkar A.V., S. K. Kulkarni and K. M. Paknikar
Comparative studies on metal biosorption by two strains of Cladosporium cladosporioides,
Bioresource Technology, Volume 80, Issue 3, December 2001, 211-215

Ping Xin Sheng, Yen-Peng Ting, J. Paul Chen and Liang Hong
Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms,
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 275, Issue 1, 1 July 2004, 131-141

Pujol R. and J. P. Canler
Biosorption and dynamics of bacterial populations in activated sludge,
Water Research, Volume 26, Issue 2, February 1992, 209-212

Remoudaki E., Tsezos M., Hatzikioeyian A., Karakoussis V.,
Mechanism of palladium biosorption by microbial biomass. The effects of metal ionic speciation and solution co-ions,


Sudha Bai R.and T. Emilia Abraham
Studies on chromium(VI) adsorption-desorption using immobilized fungal biomass,
Bioresource Technology, Volume 87, Issue 1, March 2003, 17-26

Sudha Bai R. and T. Emilia Abraham
Studies on enhancement of Cr(VI) biosorption by chemically modified biomass of Rhizopus nigricans,
Water Research, Volume 36, Issue 5, March 2002, 1224-1236

Suhasini I. P., G. Sriram, S. R. Asolekar and G. K. Sureshkumar
Biosorptive removal and recovery of cobalt from aqueous systems,
Process Biochemistry, Volume 34, Issue 3, April 1999, 239-247

Tsezos M.
Biosorption of metals. The experience accumulated and the outlook for technology development
Hydrometallurgy, 59:241-243, 2001

Tsezos M, Georgousis Z. & Remoundaki E.
Mechanism of Aluminum Interference on Uranium Biosorption by Rhizopus arrhizus
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 55:16-26, 1997

Tsezos M., Georgousis Z. & Remoundaki E.
Ionic Competition Effects in a Continuous Uranium Biosorptive Recovery Process
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 70:198-206, 1997

Tsezos M. & Remoundaki E.
Recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of metals mobility and interaction with microbial biomass
Research in Microbiology, 148:515-517, 1997

Tsezos M., Remoundaki E. & Angelatou V.
Biosorption Sites of Selected Elements Using Electron Microscopy
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 118:481-487, 1997

Tsezos M., Remoundaki E. & Angelatou V.
A Study of the Effects of Competing Ions on the Biosorption of Metals
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 38:19-29, 1996

Tsezos M., Remoundaki E. & Angelatou V.
A Systematic Study on Equilibrium and Kinetics of Biosorptive Accumulation. The Case of Ag and Ni
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 35:129-153, 1995

Tsezos M. & Deutschman A.
The Use of a Mathematical Model for the Study of Important Parameters in Immobilized Biomass Biosorption
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 53:1-12, 1992

Tsezos M. & Deutschman A.
An Investigation of Engineering Parameters for Use of Immobilized Biomass Ps in Biosorption
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 48:29-39, 1990

Tsezos M., McCready R.G.L. & Bell J.P.
The Continuous Recovery of Uranium from Biologically Leached Solutions Using Immobilized Biomass
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 34:10-17, 1989

Tsezos M., Noh S.H. & Baird M.H.I.
A Batch Reactor Mass Transfer Kinetic Model for Uranium Biosorption Using Immobilised Biomass Biosorption
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 32:545-553, 1988

Tsezos M., Baird M.H.I. & Shemilt L.W.
The Use of Immobilised Biomass to Remove and Recover Radium from Elliot Lake Uranium Tailings Streams
Hydrometallurgy, 17:357-368, 1987

Tsezos M., Baird M.H.I. & Shemilt L.W.
The Elution of Radium Adsorbed by Microbial Biomass
Chemical Engineering Journal, 34:B57-B64, 1987

Tsezos M., Baird M.H.I. & Shemilt L.W.
The Kinetics of Radium Biosorption
Chemical Engineering Journal, 33:B35-B41, 1986

Tsezos M., Baird M.H.I. & Shemilt L.W.
Adsorptive Treatment with Microbial Biomass of Ra-226 Containing Waste Waters
Chemical Engineering Journal, 32:B29-B38, 1986

Tsezos M.
Selective Extraction of Metals from Solution by Microorganisms. A Brief Overview
Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 24:141-144, 1985

Tsezos M. & Noh S.H.
Extraction of Uranium from Sea Water Using Biological Origin Adsorbents
Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 62:559-561, 1984

Tsezos M.
Recovery of Uranium from Biological Adsorbents. Desorption Equilibrium
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 26:973-981, 1984

Tsezos M.
The Role of Chitin in Uranium Adsorption by Rhizopus Arrhizus
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 25:2025-2040, 1983

Tsezos M. & Volesky B.
The Mechanism of Thorium Biosorption by R. arrhizus
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 24:955-969, 1982

Tsezos M. & Volesky B.
The Mechanism of Uranium Biosorption by R. arrhizus
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 24:385-401, 1982

Tsezos M. & Volesky B.
Biosorption of Uranium and Thorium
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 23:583-604, 1981

Tunali Sibel, Ismail Kiran and Tamer Akar
Chromium(VI) biosorption characteristics of Neurospora crassa fungal biomass ,
Minerals Engineering, Volume 18, Issue 7, June 2005, 681-689

Unz Richard F. and Kay L Shuttleworth
Microbial mobilization and immobilization of heavy metals,
Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Volume 7, Issue 3, June 1996, 307-310

Vasudevan Padma, V. Padmavathy and S. C. Dhingra
Biosorption of monovalent and divalent ions on baker's yeast,
Bioresource Technology, Volume 82, Issue 3, May 2002, 285-289

Volesky B., Sears M., Neufeld R.J. & Tsezos M.
Recovery of Strategic Elements by Adsorption
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 413:310-312, 1983

Volesky Bohumil
Biosorption process simulation tools,
Hydrometallurgy, Volume 71, Issues 1-2, October 2003, 179-190

Waihung Lo, Hong Chua, Kim-Hung Lam and Shu-Ping Bi
A comparative investigation on the biosorption of lead by filamentous fungal biomass,
Chemosphere, Volume 39, Issue 15, December 1999, 2723-2736

White Christopher, Simon C. Wilkinsonand Geoffrey M. Gadd
The role of microorganisms in biosorption of toxic metals and radionuclides,
International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, Volume 35, Issues 1-3, 1995, 17-40

Yang Jinbai and Bohumil Volesky
Biosorption of uranium on Sargassum biomass,
Water Research, Volume 33, Issue 15, October 1999, 3357-3363

Zhou J. L., P. L. Huang and R. G. Lin
Sorption and desorption of Cu and Cd by macroalgae and microalgae,
Environmental Pollution, Volume 101, Issue 1, 1998, 67-75

Zhou Dao, Lina Zhang and Shenglian Guo
Mechanisms of lead biosorption on cellulose/chitin beads ,
Water Research, Volume 39, Issue 16, October 2005, 3755-3762

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