Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR)
In a continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), reactants and products are continuously added and withdrawn. In practice, mechanical or hydraulic agitation is required to achieve uniform composition and temperature, a choice strongly influenced by process considerations. The CSTR is the idealized opposite of the well-stirred batch and tubular plug-flow reactors. Analysis of selected combinations of these reactor types can be useful in quantitatively evaluating more complex gas-, liquid-, and solid-flow behaviors.
Figure 3. Continuous stirred tank reactors, (a) With agitator and internal heat transfer surface, (b) With pump around mixing and external heat transfer surface, (adopted by ref. 5).
Because the compositions of mixtures leaving a CSTR are those within the reactor, the reaction driving forces, usually the reactant concentrations, are necessarily low. Therefore, except for reaction orders zero- and negative, a CSTR requires the largest volume of the reactor types to obtain desired conversions. However, the low driving force makes possible better control of rapid exothermic and endothermic reactions. When high conversions of reactants are needed, several CSTRs in series can be used. Equally good results can be obtained by dividing a single vessel into compartments while minimizing back-mixing and short-circuiting. The larger the number of CSTR stages, the closer the performance approaches that of a tubular plug-flow reactor.
Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactors in series are simpler and easier to design for isothermal operation than are tubular reactors. Reactions with narrow operating temperature ranges or those requiring close control of reactant concentrations for optimum selectivity benefit from series arrangements. If severe heat-transfer requirements are imposed, heating or cooling zones can be incorporated within or external to the CSTR. For example, impellers or centrally mounted draft tubes circulate liquid upward, then downward through vertical heat-exchanger tubes. In a similar fashion, reactor contents can be recycled through external heat exchangers.
The CSTR configuration is widely used in industrial applications and in wastewater treatment units (i.e. activated sludge reactors).